Black male for older or younger female

Added: Calvina Mcghee - Date: 08.08.2021 12:20 - Views: 24885 - Clicks: 595

Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Participants at a sexual health clinic completed a survey with questions regarding sexual risk behavior and partner characteristics. Of participants eligible for analysis, reported generally having older male partners. According to some studies, BMSM are not engaging in higher levels of sexual risk behavior than their non-Black counterparts; instead, high background sexually transmitted infection STI prevalence, earlier sexual debut, and having older sexual partners are cited as potential contributing factors to the increased risk of HIV acquisition seen in this population [ 56 ].

Biomedical interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis PrEP may prove to be effective in decreasing the risk of HIV acquisition [ 7 — 9 ] but behavioral interventions will continue to be important in assuring uptake, retention, and adherence to these programs [ 10 ]. Very little data exists with respect to YBMSM who have older sexual partners and whether or not having older sexual partners makes these YBMSM more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior e. Evidence suggests that YBMSM tend to have partners of the same ethnicity and social and sexual networks—increasing the chance of being exposed to HIV and acquiring the disease [ 1611 ].

Consequently, YBMSM with older sexual partners may have a greater likelihood of becoming HIV-infected simply due to the increasingly high prevalence of HIV within their sexual networks as the age of their sexual partners increases. In studies, YBMSM have reported a of factors that influence their decisions to seek out sexual relationships with older partners [ 14 ]. It is unclear, however, how the desire for these things in a sexual relationship impacts the likelihood of YBMSM to engage in risky sexual behavior. One study found that YBMSM who had older sexual partners were at increased risk of having undiagnosed HIV and reported a higher prevalence of unprotected receptive anal intercourse [ 15 ].

Additional data on the topic, however, is limited.

central asian dating

Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to determine whether YBMSM and Black transgender women who have sex with men with older sexual partners are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior than those who do not have older sexual partners. A convenience sample of young Black men and Black transgender women ased male sex at birth who have sex with men were recruited for participation from a NIH-funded randomized controlled trial of a safer sex intervention program deed specifically for this population.

For the current study, only baseline data collected before randomization and intervention are presented. Participant recruitment occurred in a federally supported clinic deated for the diagnosis and treatment of HIV and other STIs. The clinic was located in a mid-size southern city where incidence rates of HIV are particularly high. All age-eligible Black men were approached in the clinic and asked about their interest in volunteering for an HIV prevention study. Those expressing interest were screened for eligibility. A total of men were screened; of these, were eligible.

After being offered the opportunity to enroll, 66 declined, yielding an overall participation rate of All study procedures were reviewed and approved by the corresponding Institutional Review Boards.

who is robert graham dating

The questionnaire collected information relative to socio-demographic characteristics, including age, race, gender identity; sexual risk behaviors; and their sexual experiences for a retrospective period of 90 days. Subsequently, they were evaluated for chlamydia and gonorrhea in three anatomic locations: urethral and rectal infections were detected through nucleic acid amplification testing NAAT performed on a rectal swab; oral infections were detected through NAAT testing of a pharyngeal swab. Test for consenting participants were abstracted from the medical records for the day corresponding to the study enrollment visit.

Other than a large of single-item measures assessing sexual risk behaviors all within the past 90 daysthe Qualtrics interview also assessed whether participants had recently been in concurrent sexual relationships. Contingency table analyses were used to determine bivariate associations between having sex with older partners and the dichotomously assessed outcome measures.

ificance was defined by an alpha of 0. Thus, two sets of analyses were conducted. Mean age was The majority of participants More than one-half of the sample Table 1 displays descriptive information and the corresponding p -values obtained from the bivariate analyses. As shown, ificant differences were observed for 3 of the 12 outcomes examined. While Similarly, while No other comparisons ificantly differed between groups. Bivariate associations between having sex with older male partners and 12 selected outcomes assessed among young Black MSM.

To further investigate the three ificant bivariate associations, as well as three associations achieving the established screening level of ificance i.

most popular dating apps in poland

Of note not shown in Table 1 participants with older sexual partners were no more likely to test positive for chlamydia tested by oral, anal, and urine specimens than those without older sexual partners Similarly, participants with older sexual partners were no more likely to test positive for gonorrhea also tested by oral, anal, and urine specimens than those without older sexual partners Table 2 displays the descriptive information and the corresponding p -values obtained from the bivariate analyses conducted with only the HIV-uninfected participants.

Three logistic regression models were constructed to calculate age-adjusted odds ratios for the associations achieving screening ificance.

john mayer dating list

Bivariate associations between having sex with older male partners and 12 selected outcomes assessed among HIV-uninfected young black MSM. Of note not shown in Table 2 participants with older sexual partners were no more likely to test positive for chlamydia tested by oral, anal, and urine specimens than those without older partners Also, no ificant differences were observed relative to participants with older sexual partners testing positive for gonorrhea also tested by oral, anal, and urine specimens compared to those without older sexual partners A sizeable proportion of participants in our study reported having older sexual partners, and a of measures were ificantly different between participants with older sexual partners and participants without older sexual partners.

Participants that reported generally having older partners in the past 90 days were more likely to 1 be HIV-infected, 2 report having four or more recent anal sex partners in which the participant was the receptive partner, 3 have concurrent sexual partners, and 4 have sexual partners suspected of having an STI. However, once we limited our analysis to only HIV-uninfected participants, we found that these differences were no longer ificant between the groups. On the other hand, such null findings seem to indicate that YBMSM, and Black transgender women who have sex with men, in this population engage in high rates of unprotected anal intercourse regardless of whether or not they have older sexual partners.

Black male for older or younger female larger differences between proportions were observed for variables related to having multiple partners, concurrency, and sex with partners suspected of having an STI or HIV. In these examples, our confidence in the null finding as being generalizable is diminished due to a lack of robust statistical power. Nonetheless, the findings are an important starting point for further investigation. Similarly, rates of sexual concurrency were very high in this population. Nearly one-third of those with older sexual partners and nearly one-fourth of those without older sexual partners reported recent concurrent sex.

Future efforts should investigate the motivating factors for such behavior, as this might prove useful in the development and implementation of behavioral interventions targeting YBMSM and Black transgender women having sex with men. In addition, many of those with older sexual partners Instead, people often make assumptions about the status of their partners based on a of factors, which might also influence their likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior [ 21 ].

These lower levels of perceived risk in turn may lead to underestimating their risk of HIV acquisition making these individuals more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior. Although our data does not support the idea that YBMSM and Black transgender women having sex with men with older sexual partners engage in riskier behavior than those without older sexual partners, this population deserves particular attention nonetheless.

Given that the prevalence of HIV infection increases with age [ 24 ], the mere act of selecting a partner from a pool of older males is a substantial risk factor for HIV acquisition. Our analysis has several limitations. Further, the sample size contrasts between men classified as having sex with older partners and those not engaging in this behavior were greatly imbalanced and this led to a lack of robust statistical power that probably yielded null findings for comparisons that may have had meaningfully effect size differences.

All sexual risk behaviors were self-reported. Second, we did not collect age data on a partner-by-partner basis; thus, we were not able to conduct a more sensitive analysis of the study hypothesis. Our less sensitive analysis, however, creates only a bias toward the null hypothesis thereby under-estimating the effects of having older sex partners on risk of HIV acquisition.

dating around new orleans show

Our data was not collected on an event-level, meaning that we could not conduct the most rigorous of study des for this research question the event-level analysis. Finally, we have no data regarding PrEP usage among our HIV-uninfected participants although during the time of enrollment the PrEP uptake in this population has been reported to be very low. HIV-uninfected YBMSM, and Black transgender women having sex with men, on adequate prophylactic HIV prevention might engage in different levels of risk behavior based on varying perceptions about their own likelihood to contract the virus.

Future studies should consider these sexual risk behaviors in the context of the access to and utilization of these biomedical interventions as they may reduce the transmission of HIV, and thus, impact the frequency at which these risk behaviors occur. High-risk sexual behavior was extremely prevalent in this population of YBMSM and Black transgender women having sex with men. We acknowledge the invaluable contributions made by the Clinical and Nursing Staff at the Crossro Clinic and the Open Arms Healthcare Center and all the volunteers that participated in this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards. Informed Consent Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. AIDS Behav. Author manuscript; available in PMC Feb Nicholas Chamberlain1 Leandro A.

Mena1 Angelica Geter2 and Richard A. Crosby 3.

what is the best dating site for married

Leandro A. Richard A. Author information Copyright and information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Copyright notice. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Participants at a sexual health clinic completed a survey with questions regarding sexual risk behavior and partner characteristics.

Methods Study Sample A convenience sample of young Black men and Black transgender women ased male sex at birth who have sex with men were recruited for participation from a NIH-funded randomized controlled trial of a safer sex intervention program deed specifically for this population. Data Analysis Contingency table analyses were used to determine bivariate associations between having sex with older partners and the dichotomously assessed outcome measures.

Characteristics of the Sample Mean age was Analyses Including HIV-Infected Men Table 1 displays descriptive information and the corresponding p -values obtained from the bivariate analyses. Table 1 Bivariate associations between having sex with older male partners and 12 selected outcomes assessed among young Black MSM.

Open in a separate window.

female-centric dating apps

Analyses Not Including HIV-Infected Participants Table 2 displays the descriptive information and the corresponding p -values obtained from the bivariate analyses conducted with only the HIV-uninfected participants. Table 2 Bivariate associations between having sex with older male partners and 12 selected outcomes assessed among HIV-uninfected young black MSM. Discussion A sizeable proportion of participants in our study reported having older sexual partners, and a of measures were ificantly different between participants with older sexual partners and participants without older sexual partners.

Limitations Our analysis has several limitations. Conclusions High-risk sexual behavior was extremely prevalent in this population of YBMSM and Black transgender women having sex with men. Acknowledgments We acknowledge the invaluable contributions made by the Clinical and Nursing Staff at the Crossro Clinic and the Open Arms Healthcare Center and all the volunteers that participated in this study. References 1. Centers of Disease Control and Prevention.

HIV among gay and bisexual men. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. DHAP annual report accelerating progress, investing for impact. HIV surveillance report. HIV surveillance supplemental report. Preexposure prophylaxis PrEP : Who will benefit and what are the challenges? Am J Prev Med. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV in the United States— a clinical practice guideline. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in men who have sex with men and transgendered women: a secondary analysis of a phase 3 randomised controlled efficacy trial.

Black male for older or younger female

email: [email protected] - phone:(534) 319-3437 x 7813

1. A profile of single Americans